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  • Study on mixed infections of four soil-borne viruses in major sugar beet production areas of Iran: a serious threat to sugar beet crop

  • نویسندگان مقاله
    • Mohsen Mehrvar Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    • Zohreh Moradi Ph.D, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
  • چکیده مقاله

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a key production for agriculture in many countries across the world. It is affected by soil-borne viruses such as Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), a Benyvirus (Benyviridae), Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV), Beet virus Q (BVQ), two Pomovirus (Virgaviridae) and finally Beet black scorch virus (BBSV), a Betanecrovirus (Tombusviridae) along with its satellite. This study is planning to unravel the complex situation of soil-borne viruses in Iran, by studying four different viruses. Therefore, a total of 214 sugar beet root samples were collected based on their geographical locations in 12 provinces of Iran, as major growing regions of sugar beet in the country. The presence of soil-borne viruses was investigated by RT-PCR. More than 90% of samples were infected with one or more of the four viruses, indicating that soil-borne sugar beet viruses are widely distributed in the country. BNYVV was the most prevalent virus (74%), followed by BSBV (50%), BBSV (31%) and BVQ (17%). The satellite of BBSV was found in about 8.8% of the samples and in all provinces except East Azerbaijan. Interestingly, mixed infections were commonly observed and the way viruses were associated does not correspond to a random distribution. Mixed infections were found in 61.6% of samples compared to 33.1% of samples with single infections. BBSV and BVQ have never found alone and BVQ never found in association with the BBSV satellite. BNYVV single infections were the most prevalent (30%) followed by double infection with BSBV (23.3%), and triple infection with BSBV and BBSV (14.4%). Co-infection of these four viruses resulted in exacerbated symptoms which could have epidemiological consequences. Mixed infections in these virus species, suggests the potential for the evolution of new strains and resistance-breaking variants through recombination. This information would help to develop novel strategies for control of sugar beet soil borne viruses in agriculture.

  • کلید واژه

    Soil-borne viruses/ sugar beet/ distribution/ Co-infection

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